Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to create oxygen and energy in the form of sugar.
Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths).
Sunlight is a kind of mixed light. The sunlight that we see visually is actually the state after a variety of monochromatic lights are mixed. After the Mitsubishi pole splits the light, we can distinguish the colors corresponding to the light of different wavelengths.
Absorption efficiency of different light wavelengths in plant photosynthesis
Based on the difference in light utilization efficiency of photosynthetic pigments in the above figure, the initial design of plant lights was biased towards using a combination of monochromatic light to configure research applications.
Therefore, at the initial stage, the LED grow lights looked pink. Many, even colorful. However, with the expansion of market applications, cost control has become the key, so we began to consider using a combination of white light and red light for the application.
At this time, out of marketing needs, a new concept “full-spectrum” was introduced. The purpose is to distinguish some concepts previously formed for grow lamps. Therefore, the concept of full-spectrum has gradually developed.
The main analysis at present is: the spectrum is continuous between 380-780nm and there is no interruption in the middle, and the mixed light spectrum that contains all the monochromatic light that has an effect on plants is called the full spectrum.
At present, the spectrum of LED types that have been used on a large scale are basically continuous spectrum, including the spectrum of agricultural sodium lamps used on a previous scale can be classified into the same concept.
Full-spectrum light is light that covers the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared to near-ultraviolet or all wavelengths that are useful to plant or animal life; in particular, sunlight is considered full spectrum, even though the solar spectral distribution reaches Earth changes with time of day, latitude, and atmospheric conditions.
“Full-spectrum” is not a technical term when applied to an electric light bulb. Rather, it implies that the product emulates some important quality of natural light.
Products marketed as “full-spectrum” may produce light throughout the entire visible spectrum, but without producing an even spectral distribution. Some may not differ substantially from lights not marketed as “full-spectrum”.
The effect of different monochromatic light on plant growth
Near-ultraviolet(400nm-315nm): It has the function of inhibiting the growth of organisms, reducing the occurrence of bacterial diseases, and promoting plant healing.
Blue light(490nm-460nm): It is the light with high absorption efficiency of photosynthetic pigment in plant leaves. It can promote the growth of plant roots, thicken the stems, and can promoting strong seedlings.
Green light(560nm-490nm): Promote the vitality of leaf stomata, enhance color rendering, and reduce visual fatigue.
Red light 660nm: It is the light with the highest absorption efficiency of photosynthetic pigments in plant leaves. It can promote the growth and elongation of plant leaves and stems and can promote growth.
Infrared 730nm: Stimulate cell elongation, affect flowering and seed germination.
Lamp Spectrum Recommendation
At present, due to the differences in different application environments, many types of spectra have been developed on the market. However, there is still a lot of room for improvement and upgrade in the application spectrum of many plants. Based on the application spectrum that our customers have applied and received good feedback, it’s summarized some as follows.
Tissue culture Lamp Spectrum Recommendation
Application: Tissue culture
Lamp type: T5 LED tube / T8 LED tube
Universal standard spectrum:
Spectra characteristics: The first generation tissue culture lamp product, the spectrum is 6000k white light. At present, this spectrum is applied a lot on the market, and the product effect is equivalent to that of 6000k fluorescent lamps, and it is a product that replaces 6000k fluorescent lamps. With high blue light content, it is suitable for application in the rooting stage of tissue culture.
Spectra characteristics: Based on the improved design of the previous tissue culture lamp, the moderate red light ratio is increased, and the cell growth rate of the plant is increased to achieve a better growth effect. Currently, customers are applying it a lot. It is suitable for the rooting and smelting stage.
Spectra characteristics: A higher proportion of red light, suitable for application at the stage of refining seedlings
Tissue culture Remarks:
The light used in tissue culture is mainly to provide stimulation for cell differentiation and cell growth, among which blue light is the main effective component of cell differentiation and can promote root production. Therefore, in general, the blue light component of the spectrum used for tissue culture is generally relatively high.
Leafy vegetables Lamp Spectrum Recommendation
Application: Leafy vegetables
Lamp type: T5 LED tube / T8 LED tube / Customized LED panel light
Universal standard spectrum:
Spectra characteristics: The first generation nursery lamp product, the spectrum is 6000k white light. At present,this spectrum is applied a lot on the market, and the product effect is equivalent to that of 6000k fluorescent lamps, and it is a product that replaces 6000k fluorescent lamps. The blue light content is high, which is suitable for the seedling application.
Spectra characteristics: The first generation nursery lamp product, the spectrum is a combination of red and blue. There are a large number of applications in the market at the beginning, and currently, there are more applications in research institutions, and dimming control is required.
Spectra characteristics: Improved nursery spectrum
Spectra characteristics: Leafy Vegetable Planting General Spectrum No. 1 is suitable for most leafy vegetable planting. It has been applied a lot and the effect is good.
Spectra characteristics: This type of spectrum is currently used for laboratory planting.
Leafy vegetables Remarks:
The selection of spectrum in leafy vegetable planting applications should be based on actual conditions. It is generally recommended to use a spectrum with a higher proportion of blue light in the seedling stage and a spectrum with a higher proportion of red light in the later stage of growth. At present, due to the lack of refined data for different types of leafy vegetables, leafy vegetables can adapt to the sunlight-like spectrum in many cases. Currently, We recommend General Spectrum No. 1 which can basically meet the needs of most leafy vegetable cultivation.
Mushroom Cultivation Lamp Spectrum Recommendation
Application: Mushroom cultivation
Lamp type: T5 LED tube / T8 LED tube / LED strip
Universal standard spectrum:
Spectra characteristics: At present, the differentiation of mycelium into fruiting bodies (mushrooms) in the process of most fungal planting requires a certain intensity of blue light to stimulate it. The current general white light can meet the requirements of this application.
Spectra characteristics: In order to save energy, some customers currently use monochromatic blue light to stimulate plant growth.
Mushroom cultivation Remarks:
At present, the light applied to mushroom cultivation is mainly blue light, but at the same time, some special applications will use other monochromatic lights, such as yellow light, orange light, and red light. However, because the current research data is not complete, if the customer requires special effects in mushroom cultivation, the customer can only provide related information to develop together with us.
Cannabis cultivation Lamp Spectrum Recommendation
Application: Cannabis cultivation
Lamp type: GEN series / UNI series / ECO series
Universal standard spectrum:
Spectra characteristics: This spectrum is derived from the demand for cannabis cultivation in North America. The setting of this spectrum refers to fluence’s spi series spectrum. In actual development, a higher luminous efficiency red light is used, so the spectrum has a higher red light ratio than the original fluence spectrum. It belongs to the first generation of spectra, named Spectra A.
Spectra characteristics: The generation of spectrum B originated from the customer’s dissatisfaction with spectrum A. After a long period of testing, it was found that the output of spectrum A was not perfect in the late flowering period. The comparison of sodium lamps indicates that the proportion of red light was relatively small, so increasing 3000k white light to increase the proportion of red light.
Spectra characteristics: After a period of application, it is found that the full-period application spectrum changes as shown in the left picture. However, after testing in the past two years, we find that there is a difference between the spectral requirements of the growth period and the flowering period: spectrum A is more suitable for the growth period, and spectrum B is more suitable for the flowering period.
Spectra characteristics: Spectra suitable for flowering
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